Jean-Claude Fabre de l’Oratoire

Jean-Claude Fabre, né le à Paris où il est mort le , est un traducteur, prédicateur et historien français.

D’un père chirurgien, Fabre entra dans la congrégation de l’Oratoire de France et y professa avec distinction mais, après avoir inséré, en 1709, des articles jansénistes sur des matières de théologie contestées et d’autres morceaux trop satiriques dans une édition du Dictionnaire de Richelet, il dut sortir de l’Oratoire, et son ouvrage fut supprimé.

Rentré dans sa congrégation en 1715 après la mort de Louis XIV, il entreprit de continuer l’Histoire ecclésiastique de Fleury en en rédigeant les tomes 21 et 23 à 36 qui couvrent la période 1401 à 1595. Il mit à la tête de sa Continuation un discours où la critique orthodoxe trouva répréhensible une proposition que les portes de l’enfer ne prévaudront jamais contre l’Église. Ce même discours contient également un précepte indispensable de rapporter positivement toutes nos actions à Dieu, par le motif de l’amour divin. Aussi Après qu’il eut donné ces quatorze volumes, on lui fit défense de l’achever. Il avait mis en ordre le Dictionnaire des cas de conscience, par Delamet et Fromageau. Il avait également commencé la Table du Journal des savans, continuée par l’abbé Declaustre.

Cet un homme plein de douceur, de franchise et de modestie qui avait prêché avec quelque succès, et dont l’esprit se pliait facilement à tous les genres d’études, mourut dans la maison de Saint-Honoré à 85 ans.

Norwegian language conflict

The Norwegian language conflict (målstriden, språkstriden or sprogstriden) is an ongoing controversy within Norwegian culture and politics related to spoken and written versions of the Norwegian language. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, Danish was the standard written language of Norway due to Danish rule. As a result, the development of modern written Norwegian has been subject to controversy related to nationalism, rural versus urban, Norway’s literary history, dialect versus standard language, spelling reform, and orthography.

In the United Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway (1536–1814), the official language was Danish. The urban Norwegian upper class spoke Dano-Norwegian, a form of Danish with Norwegian pronunciation and other minor local differences. After the two countries separated in 1814, Dano-Norwegian remained the official language of Norway and evolved gradually to incorporate Norwegian forms. In the early 20th century, a more activist approach to written Norwegian was adopted in public policy, leading to reforms to reflect Norwegian urban and rural vernacular. Initially, the Norwegian successor to Dano-Norwegian was known as riksmål, but since 1929, this official written standard has been known as Bokmål. Later attempts to bring it closer to and eventually merge it with the other Norwegian written standard, Nynorsk, constructed on the basis of Norwegian dialects, have failed due to widespread resistance.

The Norwegian language is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. As established by law and governmental policy, there are two official forms of written Norwegian—Bokmål (literally „book language“) and Nynorsk (literally „new Norwegian“). There is no officially sanctioned spoken standard of Norwegian, but according to some, there is a de facto spoken standard of Bokmål called Standard Østnorsk (Standard East Norwegian). Historically, Bokmål is a Norwegianized variety of Danish, while Nynorsk is a language form based on Norwegian dialects and puristic opposition to Danish.

The now abandoned official policy to merge Bokmål and Nynorsk into one common language called Samnorsk through a series of spelling reforms has created a wide spectrum of varieties of both Bokmål and Nynorsk. The unofficial form known as Riksmål is considered more conservative than Bokmål, and the unofficial Høgnorsk is not affected by the Samnorsk policy, unlike Nynorsk. Norwegians are educated in both their own language form (hovedmål/hovudmål) and their secondary language form (sidemål); with the primary focus being on their own language form. Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are very similar languages. Most speakers of the three Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish) can read each other’s languages without great difficulty. The primary obstacles to mutual comprehension are differences in pronunciation. Spoken dialects vary throughout Scandinavia, but are broadly mutually intelligible throughout all three countries, including across national borders.

The earliest examples of non-Danish, Norwegian writing are from the 12th century, with Konungs skuggsjá being the prime example. The language in use at this time is known as Old Norse, and was widely used in writing in Norway and Iceland. The languages of Sweden and Denmark at this time were not very different from that of Norway, and are often also called Old Norse. Although some regional variations are apparent in written documents from this time, it is hard to know precisely the divisions between spoken dialects. This interim Norwegian is known as middle Norwegian (mellomnorsk).

With the Black Death in 1349, Norway’s economy and political independence collapsed, and the country came under Danish rule. The Norwegian language also underwent rather significant changes, shedding complex grammatical forms and adopting a new vocabulary.

The Norwegian written language at this time gradually fell into disuse and was eventually abandoned altogether in favor of written Danish, the culminating event being the translation in 1604 of Magnus the Lawmender’s code into Danish. The last example found of an original Middle Norwegian document is from 1583.

Norwegian dialects, however, lived on and evolved within the general population as vernacular speech, even as the educated classes gradually adopted a Dano-Norwegian koiné in speech. Paradoxically, the Norwegian-born writer Ludvig Holberg became one of the leading exponents of standard written Danish, even as he retained a few distinctly Norwegian forms in his own writing.

In fact, Norwegian writers—even those who were purists of the Danish language—never fully relinquished their native vocabulary and usage in their writing. Examples include Petter Dass, Johan Nordahl Brun, Jens Zetlitz, and Christian Tullin. Although Danish was the official language of the realm, Norwegian writers experienced a disparity between the languages they spoke and wrote.

In 1814, Norway separated from Denmark and adopted its own constitution. It was forced into a new, but weaker, union with Sweden, and the situation evolved into what follows:

The dissolution of Denmark–Norway occurred in the era of the emerging European nation states. In accordance with the principles of romantic nationalism, legitimacy was given to the young and still-forming nation of Norway by way of its history and culture, including the Norwegian language. Norwegian writers gradually adopted distinctly Norwegian vocabulary in their work. Henrik Wergeland may have been the first to do so; but it was the collected folk tales by Jørgen Moe and Peter Christen Asbjørnsen that created a distinct Norwegian written style. This created some opposition from the conservatives, most notably from the poet Johan Sebastian Welhaven. The influential playwright Henrik Ibsen was inspired by the nationalistic movement, but in his later writings he wrote mostly in standard Danish, probably out of concern for his Danish audience.

By 1866, the Dane Andreas Listov found it necessary to publish a book of about 3,000 terms that needed translation from Norwegian to Danish. Though most of these terms were probably taken straight from Aasmund Olavsson Vinje’s travel accounts, the publication reflected a widespread recognition that much written Norwegian no longer was pure Danish.

By the mid-18th century, two Norwegian linguistic pioneers had started the work that would influence the linguistic situation to this day. Ivar Aasen, autodidact, polyglot, and the founder of modern Norwegian linguistics, started studying first his own dialect from Sunnmøre[clarification needed], and then the structure of Norwegian dialects in general. He was one of the first to describe the evolution from Old Norse to Modern Norwegian. From this he moved to advocate and design a distinctly Norwegian written language he termed landsmål. His work was based on two important principles, in morphology he chose forms which he regarded as common denominators from which contemporary varieties could be inferred, in lexicography he applied puristic principles and excluded words of Danish or Middle Low German descent when at least some dialects had preserved synonyms inherited from Old Norse. In 1885, landsmål was adopted as an official written language alongside the Norwegian version of Danish.

Knud Knudsen, a teacher, worked instead to adapt the orthography more closely to the spoken Dano-Norwegian koiné known as „cultivated daily speech“ (dannet dagligtale). He argued that the cultivated daily speech was the best basis for a distinct Norwegian written language, because the educated classes did not belong to any specific region, they were numerous, and possessed cultural influence. Knudsen was also influenced by and a proponent of the common Dano-Norwegian movement for phonemic orthography. The written form of Norwegian based on his work eventually became known as riksmål, a term introduced by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1899.

As a result of Knudsen’s work, the Parliament of Norway passed the first orthographical reforms in 1862, most of which also had its proponents in Denmark. Though modest in comparison to subsequent reforms, it nevertheless marked a legislative step toward a distinct written standard for Norway. Silent e‘s were eliminated from written Norwegian (faa rather than faae), double vowels were no longer used to denote long vowels, k replaced the use of c, q, and ch in most words, and ph was eliminated in favor of f.

Such orthographic reforms continued in subsequent years, but in 1892 the Norwegian department of education approved the first set of optional forms in the publication of Nordahl Rolfsens Reader for the Primary School (Læsebog for Folkeskolen). Also, in 1892, national legislation let each local school board the right to decide whether to teach its children in riksmål or landsmål.

In 1907, linguistic reforms were extended to include not just orthography but also grammar. The characteristic Norwegian „hard“ consonants (p, t, k) replaced Danish „soft“ consonants (b, d, g) in writing; consonants were doubled to denote short vowels; words that in Norwegian were monosyllabic were spelled that way; and conjugations related to neutrum were adapted to common Norwegian usage in cultivated daily speech.

In 1913 Olaf Bull’s crime novel Mit navn er Knoph (My name is Knoph) became the first piece of Norwegian literature to be translated from Riksmål into Danish for Danish readers, thereby underlining the fact that Riksmål was by now a separate language.

In 1906, prominent writers of landsmål formed an association to promote their version of written Norwegian, calling themselves Noregs Mållag; a year later, the corresponding organization to promote riksmål was founded, naming itself Riksmålsforbundet. The formation of these organizations coincided with the rule that all incoming university students – those who passed examen artium – had to demonstrate mastery of both for admission to university programs. They had to write a second additional essay in the Norwegian language that was not their primary language.

In 1911, the writer Gabriel Scott’s comedic play Tower of Babel had its premiere in Oslo. It is about a small town in eastern Norway that is overtaken by proponents of landsmål who take to executing all those who resist their language. The play culminates in the landsmål proponents killing each other over what to call their country: Noregr, Thule, Ultima, Ny-Norig, or Nyrig. The last line is spoken by a country peasant who, seeing the carnage, says: „Good thing I didn’t take part in this!“

There was at least one brawl in the audience during the play’s run, and the stage was set for a linguistic schism that would characterize Norwegian politics to this day.

To confuse matters further, Eivind Berggrav, Halvdan Koht, and Didrik Arup Seip formed a third organization called Østlandsk reisning that sought to increase the representation, as it were, of Eastern Norwegian dialects in landsmål, since they felt Aasen’s language as overly influenced by the dialects of Western Norway.

In 1917, the Norwegian parliament passed the first major standard for both Norwegian languages. The standard for riksmål was for the most part a continuation of the 1907 reforms and added some optional forms that were closer to Norwegian dialects, but those for landsmål sought to reduce forms that were considered idiosyncratic for Western Norway.

As it turned out, the reforms within riksmål themselves caused controversy – between those who held that the written language should closely approximate the formal language of the educated elite on the one hand, and those who held that it should reflect the quotidian language of commoners on the other. A distinction was made between „conservative“ and „radical“ riksmål. This added a further political dimension to the debate that opened for a possible convergence between more liberal forms of landsmål and radical forms of riksmål. This was to form the basis for the notion of samnorsk, a synthesis – yet to be realized – of the two main streams of written Norwegian.

By 1921, school districts had made their choice in the growing controversy: 2,000 taught landsmål as the primary written language; 2,550 the radical form of riksmål, and 1,450 conservative riksmål. In 1920, national authorities decided that the issue of language should be put to voters in local referendums, which brought the dispute to a local level where it was no less contentious. In Eidsvoll, for example, a local banker (Gudbrand Bræk, the father of Ola Skjåk Bræk) was threatened with being run out of town over his support for samnorsk.

Already in the late 19th century, place-names in Norway started changing, ideally to reflect what they were called by their residents. In 1917, 188 municipalities were renamed; all counties were given new names in 1918; and several of the largest cities were renamed in the 1920s; notably Kristiania became Oslo, Fredrikshald became Halden, for example. Some of these changes were less popular. For example, some residents of Sandviken were none too pleased about the „radical“ change to Sandvika, nor were many in nearby Fornebo willing to accept Fornebu. The greatest controversy erupted over the city of Trondheim, which had until then been known as Trondhjem, but in the Viking era had been called Nidaros. After the authorities had decided – without consulting the population – that the city should be renamed Nidaros, a compromise was eventually reached, with Trondheim.

In 1911, the Kristiansund school board circulated among its teachers a document that required that their oral instruction had to be in the same language as the district’s written language, in this case riksmål. A teacher, Knut Grimstad, refused to accept this on the grounds that neither the school district nor the Norwegian national authorities had the right to impose a version of a spoken language as instruction. He found support in the 1878 resolution that required that all students – „as much as possible“ – should receive instruction in a language close to their native tongue. This was subsequently clarified to mean that they were supposed to be taught in „the Norwegian language,“ a phrase also open to interpretation.

Grimstad was forced to apologize for the form of his protest, but the issue nevertheless came up in parliament in 1912. This became one of the first political challenges for the new Konow cabinet, falling under the auspices of Edvard Appoloniussen Liljedahl, the minister of churches and education. Liljedahl was a respected and dyed-in-the-wool member of the landsmål camp, having actually addressed the parliament in his native dialect from Sogn. For his rebuke of Grimstad’s position, he was vilified by his own.[clarification needed] Trying to find a compromise, his department confirmed the principle of teaching in the „local common spoken language“ while also requires that they be „taught in the language decided for their written work.“ This now attracted the ire of the riksmål camp.

Parliament and the department hoped that this clarification would put the issue to rest; but in 1923, the school board in Bergen decided that the spoken language in all its schools would be riksmål. Olav Andreas Eftestøl, the school director for this region – there were seven such appointees for the entire country of Norway – took this decision to the department in 1924, and another parliamentary debate ensued. Eftestøl’s view was endorsed, and this put an end to the discussion about spoken language in schools; although it took longer before native speakers of Sami and Kven got the same rights; and the issue has re-emerged recently with respect to immigrant children’s native language.

The ascent of the Norwegian Labour Party turned out to be decisive in passing the 1917 reforms, and one Labour politician – the illustrious Halvdan Koht – was in the early 1920s asked to develop the party’s political platform for the Norwegian language.

Koht was for some years both the chairman of Noregs mållag and Østlandsk reisning and immersed on the issue of language. He published his findings in 1921, and framed them in a decidedly political context.

His view, which was to gain currency among his fellow Labourites, was that the urban working class and rural farming class had a convergence of interests in language, giving rise to the emergent „people’s language“ (folkemålet). He wrote that „The struggle for the people’s language is the cultural side of the labor movement.“ This notion of convergence led the Labour Party to embrace the ideal of a synthesis of the two main languages into one language, built on the spoken forms of the „common person“, or samnorsk.

Having already changed the names of the languages: riksmål became bokmål and landsmål nynorsk by parliamentary resolution of 1929, the Labour party made Koht their thought leaders and spokesperson on these issues, formalizing his views into their platform.

The 1938 reforms, proposed under the first durable Labour cabinet of Johan Nygaardsvold, represented a radical departure from previous reforms.

The reforms clearly aspired to bring the two languages closer together and predictably angered advocates in each camp. In particular, the proponents of riksmål felt the reforms were a frontal assault on their written language and sensibilities, since many elements of their previous norm – dannet dagligtale – were deprecated. But also purists in the landsmål camp were unhappy, feeling that the reforms gutted their language.

The occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took the language issue off the national political scene. The Quisling government rescinded the 1938 reforms and made some changes of its own, but as with virtually everything Quisling did, this was rendered null and void by the post-war Norwegian government.

As it turned out, the war set the nynorsk movement back substantially. The momentum gained by the Labour party’s activism for nynorsk was lost during the war, and Noreg mållag’s entire archive was lost in 1944. An opinion poll in 1946 showed that 79% of all Norwegians favored the formation of samnorsk, setting further back the cause of the purists who favored the traditional landsmål forms.

On the other side of the issue, the poet Arnulf Øverland galvanized Riksmålsforbundet in opposition not to nynorsk, which he respected, but against the radical bokmål recommended by the 1938 reforms. Their efforts were particularly noted in Oslo, where the school board had decided to make radical forms of bokmål the norm in 1939 („Oslo-vedtaket“). In 1951, concerned parents primarily from the affluent western neighborhoods of Oslo organized the „parents‘ campaign against samnorsk“ (foreldreaksjonen mot samnorsk), which in 1953 included „correcting“ textbooks.

In 1952, Øverland and Riksmålsforbundet published the so-called „blue list“ that recommended more conservative orthography and forms than most of the 1938 reforms. This book established for the first time a real alternative standard in riksmål to legislated bokmål. It set the standard for two of the capital’s main daily newspapers, Aftenposten and Morgenbladet. It also contributed to the reversal of the „Oslo decision“ in 1954.

In 1951, the Norwegian parliament established by law Norsk språknemnd, which later was renamed Norsk språkråd (Norwegian Language Council). Riksmålsforeningen disagreed with the premises of the council’s mandate, namely that Norwegian was to be built on the basis of the „people’s language.“ The council was convened with 30 representatives, 15 from each of the main languages. However, most of them supported samnorsk.

In 1952, a minor reform passed with little fanfare and controversy: in spoken official Norwegian, numbers over 20 were to be articulated with the tens first, e.g., „twenty-one“ as is the Swedish and English practice rather than „one-and-twenty,“ the previous practice also found in Danish and German.

Arnulf Øverland, who had so successfully energized the riksmål movement after the war, did not see nynorsk as the nemesis of his cause. Rather, he appealed to the nynorsk movement to join forces against the common enemy he found in samnorsk. By several accounts, however, much of the activism within the riksmål camp was directed against all „radical“ tendencies, including nynorsk.

The use of bokmål and nynorsk in the government-controlled Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) came under a particular scrutiny. As a government agency (and monopoly) that has traditionally been strongly associated with the Nynorsk-supporting Norwegian Labour Party, NRK was required to include both languages in its broadcasts. According to their own measurements, well over 80% was in bokmål and less than 20% nynorsk. Still, the riksmål advocates were outraged, since they noted that some of the most popular programs (such as the 7 pm news) were broadcast in nynorsk, and the bokmål was too radical in following the 1938 norms.

This came to a head in the case of Sigurd Smebye, a meteorologist who insisted on using highly conservative riksmål terms in reporting the weather. This ended up on the parliamentary floor, where the minister had to assure the public that anyone was entitled to use his/her own dialect on the air. However, Smebye was effectively disallowed from performing on television and ended up suing and prevailing over NRK in a supreme court case.

At the same time, one of the announcers for children’s radio shows complained that her texts had been corrected from riksmål to 1938-bokmål, e.g., from Dukken lå i sengen sin på gulvet to Dokka lå i senga si på golvet. With the 1959 reforms, the issue seems to have been resolved – everyone in NRK could use their own natural spoken language.

As its first major work, the language council published in 1959 new standards for textbooks. The purpose of a unified standard was to avoid multiple versions of standard books to accommodate „moderate,“ „radical,“ and „conservative“ versions of the languages. The standard was by its nature a continuation of the convergence movement toward the ever-elusive goal of samnorsk. Double consonants to denote short vowels are put in common use; the silent „h“ is eliminated in a number of words; more „radical“ forms in bokmål are made primary; while nynorsk actually offers more choices.

However, it appeared that the 1959 attempt was the last gasp of the samnorsk movement. After this, the Norwegian Labour Party decided to depoliticize language issues by commissioning expert panels on linguistic issues.

In January 1964, a committee was convened by Helge Sivertsen, minister of education, with Professor Hans Vogt as its chair. It was variously known as the „Vogt committee“ or „language peace committee“ (språkfredskomitéen). Its purpose was to defuse the conflict about language in Norway and build an atmosphere of mutual respect.

The committee published its findings in 1966, pointing out that:

These findings were subject to hearings and discussions in coming years in a decidedly more deliberate form than before; and a significant outcome was the Norsk språknemnd became Norsk språkråd, responsible less for prescribing language than for cultivating it. Still, the Vogt committee promoted convergence as a virtue.

The Norwegian countercultural movement and the emergence of the New Left sought to disassociate itself from the conservative establishment in many ways, including language. At the universities, students were encouraged to „speak their dialect, write nynorsk,“ and radical forms of bokmål were adopted by urban left wing socialists.

The first debate about Norwegian EU membership leading to the 1972 referendum gave new meaning to rural culture and dialects. The nynorsk movement gained new momentum, putting rural districts and the dialects more in the center of Norwegian politics.

In 1973, Norsk språkråd instructed teachers to no longer correct students who used conservative riksmål in their writing, provided these forms were used consistently.

The 1973 recommendation by the council was formally approved by parliament in 1981 in what was known as the „liberalization resolution“ (liberaliseringsvedtaket). With the exception of a few „banner words“ (riksmål nu rather than bokmål („now“), efter rather than etter („after“), sne rather than snø („snow“), and ironically sprog rather than språk („language“)), traditional riksmål forms were fully accepted in contemporary bokmål, though all the radical forms were retained.

On 13 December 2002 the samnorsk ideal was finally officially abandoned when the Ministry of Culture and Church affairs sent out a press release to that effect. The primary motivation for this change in policy was the emerging recognition that government policy should not prohibit forms that are in active use and had a strong basis in the body of Norwegian literary work.

This was further formalized in the so-called „2005-reforms“ that primarily affected orthography for bokmål. So-called „secondary forms“ (sideformer) were abolished. These forms were variant spellings that would be tolerated by the general public, but disallowed among text book authors and public officials. The 2005 changes now made all allowable forms equal standing. These changes effectively recognize approximately full usage of riksmål forms.

In modern Norway, many of the largest urban centres‘ municipal governments have chosen to declare themselves neutral. However, it can be seen that several large centres have formally adopted the use of Bokmål, and very few larger urban centres use Nynorsk exclusively:

The Samnorsk issue turned out to be fateful for two generations of amateur and professional linguists in Norway and flared up into a divisive political issue from time to time. By letting Bokmål be Bokmål (or Riksmål) and Nynorsk Nynorsk, the Norwegian government allowed each—in principle—to develop on its own.

As Norwegian society has integrated more with the global economy and European cosmopolitanism, the effect on both written and spoken Norwegian is evident. There is a greater prevalence of English loan words in Norwegian, and some view this with great concern.

In 2004, the Norwegian Language Council issued Norwegian orthography for 25 originally English words, suggesting that for example „bacon“ be spelled beiken. This was in keeping with previous practices that made stasjon the Norwegian writing for „station,“ etc., but the so-called „beiken reforms“ fell on hard ground, and beiken was one of the spelling changes that was voted down.

There is also a trend, which has been ongoing since the dissolution of the Dano-Norwegian Union in 1814, to assimilate individual Swedish loan words into Norwegian. Although it lost momentum substantially after the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905 it has remained an ongoing phenomenon of Norwegian linguistics. Indeed, the prominent Norwegian linguist Finn-Erik Vinje characterizes this influx since the Second World War as a breaking wave.

There is further a concern in some quarters that poor grammar and usage is becoming more commonplace in the written press and broadcast media, and consequently among students and the general population. While the sociolinguistic view that language constantly evolves is duly noted among these critics, there is some call for more vigilance in written language. Broadcast programs such as Typisk Norsk and Språkteigen are intended to raise the general awareness of the Norwegian language; the „language director“ Sylfest Lomheim is working to make language issues more visible.

Archivio di Stato Austriaco

L‘Archivio di Stato Austriaco (in tedesco: Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, abbreviato ÖStA) è l’archivio centrale dello stato della Repubblica Austriaca ed ha sede a Vienna.

L’origine dell’Archivio di Stato austriaco risale al 1749, quando l’imperatrice Maria Teresa nell’ambito della riforma dell’amministrazione istituì un Archivio Segreto di Corte (Geheimes Hausarchiv). La fondazione si inseriva nella nuova amministrazione centralizzata, la quale richiedeva anche un archivio unificato; perciò i documenti furono inviati dagli altri centri amministrativi, come Praga, Graz e Innsbruck, a Vienna.

Nell’Ottocento assunse il nome di „Archivio di Famiglia, di Corte e di Stato“ (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv).

L’attuale Archivio si divide in varie sezioni:

Esso raccoglie ogni documento prodotto dalle amministrazioni centrali della Repubblica Austriaca dal 1918 in poi: ministeri, servizi federali, servizi da essi dipendenti.

Questa sezione raccoglie la documentazione relativa all’amministrazione interna della monarchia asburgica a partire dal XVI secolo. Si tratta di una rilevante raccolta di carte e piantine nonché di circa 5.000 documenti. La raccolta trae origine dagli archivi della Cancelleria di Corte dalla fondazione del Directorium in publicis et cameralibus nel 1749 in poi.

I documenti di questa sezione sono divisi in dieci gruppi tematici, in parte collegati alle amministrazioni da cui provengono:

L’inizio di un archivio militare sistematico della monarchia asburgica può essere fatto risalire al 1711, quando l’Imperatore Giuseppe I ordinò l’istituzione di un archivio presso il Consiglio aulico, il supremo organo miliare della monarchia.

Oggi l’Archivio militare (Kriegsarchiv) comprende 180.000 faldoni e 60.000 registri. La collezione cartografica raccoglie più di 600.000 carte geografiche e piante. Vi è inoltre una raccolta di 400.000 stampe ed illustrazioni.

I 22 gruppi di documenti possono essere riuniti in cinque blocchi principali:

Questa sezione risulta dalla fusione dell’archivio del Ministero delle Finanze con quello della precedente Camera di Corte. Questa, fondata nel 1527, era l’ufficio finanziario centrale della monarchia asburgica. Nel 1848 si trasformò nel Ministero delle Finanze.

L’Archivio di Famiglia, di Corte e di Stato (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv) fu fondato nel 1749 da Maria Teresa come archivio centrale della Casa d’Asburgo.

I principali temi toccati dai documenti di questo archivio sono quattro:

Questa sezione comprende inoltre archivi di famiglie e territori cessati, nonché lasciti, una raccolta di manoscritti, una di sigilli ed una di cartine e piante.

Complessivamente lo Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv conta 130.000 fra registri e faldoni, 75.000 documenti, 15.000 cartine e piante e circa 3.000 manoscritti.

Il documento più antico è un atto emanato dall’imperatore Ludovico il Pio nell’816.

L’importanza di questa sezione dell’Archivio è dovuta al fatto che interessa la storia dell’intera Europa, sia perché molti furono i territori sottoposti al dominio asburgico (fra cui alcune regioni italiane), sia perché la Dinastia intratteneva relazioni diplomatiche con tutti gli altri stati.

Altri progetti

Trichodes octopunctatus

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants.

Trichodes octopunctatus

Nom binominal

Trichodes octopunctatus
(Fabricius, 1787)

Trichodes octopunctatus est une espèce d’insecte coléoptère de la famille des Cleridae.

Longueur : entre 9 et 18 mm. Les élytres n’ont pas de fascies transverses et ont chacun quatre taches noires disposées en 1-2-1, l’apicale pouvant manquer.

On le trouve au Sud de la France dans les lieux secs où il est peu commun. On le trouve aussi en Italie et en Espagne.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Juan Siches de Alarcón

Juan Siches de Alarcón (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1874 – ibídem, 31 de marzo de 1954) fue un primer actor de reparto, escritor y recitador argentino.

Alarcón fue un distinguido actor de reparto que actuó en numerosos films durante la época dorada del cine argentino, junto a grandes figuras como Pepe Arias, Sofía Bozán, Aída Luz, Justo Caraballo, Miguel Gómez Bao, José Gola, Vicente Álvarez, entre otros.

En 1936 escribió el radioteatro Lucía que se emitió a las 21.30 horas por LR 8, Radio París.Integrado por los Integrantes de la „Compañía radioteatral Argos“ ,que actuó bajo la dirección del actor Juan de la Serna.

Luego participó del Teatro de Misterio Volcán en el episodio Los crímenes científicos del Dr. Van Dine, protagonizado por Enrique Roldán, Queca Herrero, Meneca Norton, Américo Acosta Machado, Pablo Lagarde y Ricardo Passano.

Su intervención en teatro fue tanto actoral como también de recitador de famosas poesías de autores como Núñez de Arce y Santos Chocano.

También trabajó en 1954 en una obra benéfica que presentó en el Teatro Apolo junto con Leonor Rinaldi y Enrique Serrano.

Shields Woolen Mill

Shields Woolen Mill is located along the edge of the Mississippi River in Davenport, Iowa, United States. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1983. The building has been repurposed as commercial and office space.

Because the Civil War cut off cotton supplies from the southern states, wool increased in popularity in the North. To take advantage of the situation Joseph Shields established Shields Woolen Mills in 1863. By 1870 he employed 52 people and the annual production value of the mill was $36,000, which made it the sixth largest industry in Davenport.

Several fires and financial problems caused Shield’s problems and he committed suicide in 1878. By 1881 the business was reorganized as the Davenport Woolen Mills. In the 1890s the mill employed 140 people and its product line included clothing, cashmere, flannels and blankets. It would be the high point of the company, however. As the sheep herds moved further west the production of woolen goods moved with them. The company’s financial situation rose and fell and it finally closed in 1914.

This two-story industrial building has both shallow side gable and flat roofs. It is constructed in brick with a stone foundation and basement, which is exposed on the south elevation of the building. Segmental arch windows predominate throughout the structure. The middle section with the pedimented entrance is the original section of the building that was completed in 1863. Additions were made to the structure with the last one added in 1868. It is located in an old milling district along the Mississippi River. This is thought to be the oldest structure still standing in Davenport that was designed for steam operated industrial use.

Mit dem Rücken zur Wand

Das 1990 erschienene Buch Mit dem Rücken zur Wand ist der zweite Band der Trilogie der Wendepunkte von Klaus Kordon. Es erzählt die Erlebnisse eines Jungen einer kommunistisch geprägten Arbeiterfamilie aus Berlin in den Jahren 1932 und 33, vor dem Hintergrund des Beginns des Nazi-Regimes.

Zu dieser Trilogie gehören außerdem der 1985 erschienene Roman Die roten Matrosen und das 1993 erschienene Buch Der erste Frühling.

Das Buch spielt in den Jahren 1932 und 33 im Berliner Wedding, das Leben der Arbeiterfamilien dort ist geprägt von der Weltwirtschaftskrise mit ihren Folgen wie hoher Arbeitslosigkeit und Armut sowie von den politischen Spannungen am Ende der Weimarer Republik mit Straßenschlachten, häufigen Regierungswechseln und dem Beginn des Nazi-Regimes.

In dieser Zeit beginnt der 15-jährige Hans Gebhard, der gerade die Schule beendet und keinen Ausbildungsplatz gefunden hat, seine Arbeit im Lager AEG-Werks im Wedding. Seine Arbeit gefällt ihm nicht, doch er ist froh, mit seinem Einkommen seine Familie unterstützen zu können. In der Fabrik trifft er zum ersten Mal Mieze, mit der er eine Beziehung beginnt.

Auch wenn Hans im Gegensatz zu seinen Eltern und seinem älteren Bruder Helle, die überzeugte Kommunisten sind, zunächst keine klaren politischen Überzeugungen pflegt, wird er zunehmend gezwungen, Stellung zu beziehen: Schon am ersten Arbeitstag wird er von Kollegen, die Mitglieder der SA sind, verprügelt, weil sie davon ausgehen, dass er, wie der Rest seiner Familie, Kommunist ist. Weiter ist seine Freundin „Halbjüdin“ und muss daher Angst vor einer Machtübernahme der Nationalsozialisten haben.

Die politischen Spannungen setzen sich auch in der Familie Gebhardt fort: Günther, der Freund von Martha, der Schwester von Hans, tritt in die SA ein. Während Martha sich daran nicht sehr stört und die Vorteile genießt, die ihnen Günthers schneller Aufstieg in der Parteihierarchie verschafft, ist der Rest der Familie schockiert und es kommt zu einer zunehmenden Entfremdung.

Nach dem Reichstagsbrand gehören auch Hans Vater sowie Helle und dessen Frau zu denen, die verhaftet und inhaftiert werden. Unter den Hilfspolizisten, welche die Verhaftung durchführen ist auch Marthas Freund, was ihre Beziehung zum Rest der Familie endgültig zerstört. Als Zeichen des Widerstandes hissen Hans und Mieze wenig später auf dem Dach des Wohnhauses von Helle eine rote Fahne. Als Hans nach Hause kommt, lauern ihm einige Männer, unter ihnen Max Sauer, auf und schlagen ihn zusammen. Hans wird schwer verletzt, dennoch schlägt er ein Angebot, in Moskau seine Schuldbildung fortzusetzen aus, er will in Berlin bleiben und weiterhin Widerstand leisten.

Rogers‘ Rangers

[senza fonte]

I Rogers- Rangers furono una compagnia indipendente di rangers coloniali aggregata all’esercito inglese durante la guerra dei sette anni (chiamata negli USA guerra franco-indiana). L’unità era informalmente addestrata e comandata dal maggiore Robert Rogers come una compagnia di fanteria leggera di rapido impiego con incarichi di ricognizione e conduzione di operazioni speciali contro obiettivi distanti. Le loro tattiche militari erano così audaci ed efficienti da farli diventare la principale unità di esplorazione dell’esercito della Corona Inglese nel tardi anni ’50 del XVIII secolo. Gli Inglesi attribuirono sempre a loro un elevato riconoscimento delle capacità di raccogliere informazioni sul nemico. Più tardi, diversi membri dei Rangers di Rogers divennero leader influenti nel corso della guerra di indipendenza americana. Numerosi ex rangers parteciparono come patrioti alla battaglia di Concord Bridge.

Oggi tre formazioni militari dichiarano la loro discendenza dal Rangers di Rogers:

I Rangers di Rogers furono una milizia coloniale nordamericana che combatté per la Corona Inglese durante quella che venne definita Guerra Franco-Indiana in quelli che sarebbero poi divenuti Stati Uniti e Guerra dei Sette Anni in Canada, Inghilterra ed Europa. Agli ordini del Maggiore Robert Rogers, essi operarono principalmente nelle regioni del Lago George e del Lago Champlain dello Stato di New York. L’unità fu creata durante il duro inverno del 1755 da forze provinciali acquartierate a Forte William Henry. I Rangers intrapresero frequentemente delle missioni invernali contro città e avamposti militari Francesi, spostandosi su rozze ciaspole e attraversando fiumi ghiacciati.

Benché mai totalmente rispettati dai regolari inglesi, i Rangers di Rogers furono una delle poche forze non indiane in grado di operare in regioni in cui il terreno montagnoso e le durissime stagioni invernali, creavano condizioni proibitive.

Il 21 gennaio 1757, alla Prima Battaglia delle Ciaspole, la milizia di Rogers, forte di 74 rangers tese un agguato e catturo sette francesi vicino a Forte Carillon all’estremità sudorientale del Lago Champlain. Essi si scontrarono contro una milizia franco-canadese e indiani Ottawa composta da 100 uomini provenienti dal Territorio dell’Ohio. Dopo aver raccolto i feriti, le forze di Rogers si ritirarono. Nei loro rapporti, i francesi annotarono il loro svantaggio tattico dato che non indossavano ciaspole e „affondavano nella neve fino alle ginocchia.“ I Rangers di Rogers erano stati in grado di mantenere le posizioni sulle alture e dietro gli alberi. Secondo Francis Parkman, le perdite tra i Rangers furono di 14 morti e sei catturati, e 48 rientrati indenni e sei feriti. I Francesi, rappresentati da 89 regolari e 90 canadesi ed indiani, ebbero 37 tra morti e feriti.

Dopo la perdita di Forte William Henry alla battaglia omonima nell’agosto del 1757, i Rangers furono acquartierati a Rogers Island in prossimità di Forte Edward. Ciò consentì ai Rangers di addestrarsi e operare con maggiore libertà rispetto alle forze regolari.

Il 13 marzo 1758, alla Seconda Battaglia delle Ciaspole, i Rangers di Rogers tesero un agguato ad una colonna Franco-Indiana divenendo, a loro volta, vittime di un agguato da parte di forze nemiche. I Rangers perdettero 125 uomini nello scontro, più otto feriti, e solo 52 sopravvissero. Un rapporto cita perdite tra i Regolari, che avevano volontariamente accompagnato i Rangers, in numero di due prigionieri e 5 morti. Dei Rangers, 78 furono fatti prigionieri e 47 furono morti o dispersi (di questi 19 prigionieri). Rogers calcolò che le perdite tra i Franco-Indiani furono di 100 morti e circa 100 feriti. Ma, i francesi riferirono nei loro rapporti, dieci indiani uccisi e 17 feriti e tre canadesi feriti.

I Francesi riferirono inizialmente di aver ucciso Rogers nel corso della seconda battaglia. Questo rapporto si basava sul recupero di alcuni oggetti di Rogers, compresa la giubba militare contenente i suoi ordini, ma in realtà egli l’aveva scampata. Questo episodio diede anche origine alla leggenda secondo la quale Rogers si era lasciato scivolare per 350 metri lungo la parete di una montagna fino alla superficie ghiacciata del Lago George. Anche se non esistono prove di questa vicenda, la parete rocciosa divenne nota col nome di „Scivolo di Rogers“ o „Roccia di Rogers“.

IL 7-8 luglio 1758, i Rangers di Rogers presero parte alla Battaglia di Carillon. Il 27 luglio 1758, tra Forte Edwards e Half-Way Brook, 300 Indiani e 200 Franco/Canadesi agli ordini del Capitano Saint Luc tesero un agguato a un convoglio. Gli inglesi ebbero 116 morti (compresi 16 Rangers) e 60 prigionieri.

L’8 agosto 1758, vicino a Crown Point, New York, una pattuglia composta da Rangers, fanteria leggera e provinciali, rimase vittima di un’imboscata da parte di una pattuglia Franco-Canadese-Indiana composta da 450 uomini agli ordini del Capitano Marin. Nel corso di questa azione, il Maggiore Israel Putnam fu fatto prigioniero. Francis Parkman narra che le perdite inglese furono ammontarono a 49 uomini e che i nemici uccisi furono“…più di cento..“. Allo stesso modo, Rogers affermò che le perdite inglesi furono di 33 morti e quelle del nemico 199. Tuttavia, un’altra fonte riferisce che le perdite francesi furono di quattro indiani e sei canadesi uccisi, e quattro indiani e sei canadesi {compresi un ufficiale e un cadetto} feriti.

Nel corso del 1759, i Rangers furono coinvolti in una delle loro operazioni più famose: venne loro ordinato di distruggere l’insediamento Abenaki di Saint-Francis nel Québec. Questo avamposto era stato il punto di partenza di missioni e attacchi contro insediamenti inglesi. Rogers condusse una forza di 200 rangers da Crown Point fin nel cuore del territorio francese. A seguito dell’attacco del 3 ottobre 1759 e della distruzione di Saint-Francis, la forza di Rogers finì le scorte di cibo durante la ritirata attraverso le foreste del Vermont settentrionale. Raggiunta infine una posizione sicura lungo il Fiume Connecticut presso l’abbandonato Forte Wentworth, Rogers lasciò i suoi uomini accampati. Egli ritornò qualche giorno dopo con il cibo e con le forze di liberazione dal Forte Numero 4, oggi Charlestown, New Hampshire, la città inglese più vicina.

Nella missione contro Saint-Francis, Rogers dichiarò di aver ucciso 200 nemici, e di aver risparmiato 20 donne e bambini, dei quali cinque bambini vennero condotti con i Rangers mentre i restanti bambini e le donne vennero lasciati andare. I Francesi riferirono che solo 30 furono i morti, compresi 20 tra donne e bambini.. Secondo Francis Parkman, le perdite dei Rangers nell’attacco furono un morto e sei feriti; tuttavia, nella ritirata, cinque appartenenti ad una pattuglia di Rangers quasi tutti gli appartenenti ad una seconda pattuglia di circa 20 furono uccisi o catturati. Una fonte afferma che dei circa 204 Rangers, alleati e osservatori, solo circa 100 fecero ritorno.

Alla fine della guerra, ai Rangers venne dato ordine di prendere il comando di Detroit dalla forze francesi. Dopo la guerra, molti Rangers tornarono alla vita civile. Nel 1763 un’unità di Rogers‘ Rangers, l’80esimo Reggimento di Fanteria Leggera (1758-1764), venne colto in un’imboscata durante il Massacro della Bocca del Diavolo durante la Rivolta del Pontiac.

Allo scoppiare della Rivoluzione Americana nella battaglia di Lexington e Concord, ex Rangers si trovavano tra i Minutemen a sparare agli Inglesi. Dopo questi fatti, Rogers offrì il suo aiuto al comandante dell’esercitò dei coloni, George Washington. Questi rifiutò, temendo che Rogers fosse una spia in quanto era appena tornato da un lungo soggiorno in Inghilterra. Irato per il rifiuto, Rogers si unì alla madrepatria, dove diede vita ai Queen’s Rangers (1776) e più tardi i King’s Rangers.

I Queen’s York Rangers (1st American Regiment) dell’esercito canadese dichiara di discendere dai Rogers‘ Rangers, così come il 1º battaglione del 119esimo schieramento di artiglieria del Michigan e gli U.S. Army Rangers

Giglio (scout)

Il giglio è uno dei principali simboli dello scautismo, e appare nei loghi della maggior parte delle associazioni scout del mondo.

I tre petali del giglio rappresentano i tre punti della Promessa scout (compiere il dovere verso Dio e il Paese, aiutare gli altri, osservare la legge scout), esattamente come i tre petali del trifoglio per le guide.

Robert Baden-Powell, il fondatore dello scautismo, spiegò che gli scout hanno adottato il giglio come simbolo per il suo uso nella rosa della bussola, perché „punta nella giusta direzione (e verso l’alto) girando né a destra né a sinistra, dato che queste riportano indietro“.

Le due piccole stelle rappresentano la verità e la conoscenza, e le loro cinque punte (10 sommate) rappresentano i dieci articoli della Legge scout.

Il nodo piano rappresenta la forza dello scautismo mondiale, e ricorda di compiere sempre la Buona Azione. La corda rappresenta l’unità degli scout nel mondo, e l’anello che tiene insieme i petali rappresenta il legame di fratellanza fra gli scout.

Altri progetti

Tolle Marietta

Tolle Marietta (OT: Naughty Marietta) ist die Verfilmung der gleichnamigen Operette von Rida Johnson Young und Victor Herbert unter der Regie von W. S. Van Dyke. Der Film etablierte die beiden Hauptdarsteller Jeanette MacDonald und Nelson Eddy als Leinwandpaar, das bis 1942 noch sieben weitere Filme, vorzugsweise Operetten, gemeinsam drehte.

Frankreich im 18. Jahrhundert. Die Prinzessin Marie de Namours de la Bonfain, eine Waise, die bei ihrem Onkel Prinz de la Bonfain lebt, verweigert die von König Louis XV geplante Hochzeit mit dem spanischen Edelmann Don Carlos de Braganza. Als sie hört, dass ihre Freundin Marietta Franini nach Louisiana übersiedeln wird, entschließt sie sich zur Flucht aus Frankreich. Marietta ist zu arm, um weiter in Paris leben zu können. Sie will in die französische Kolonie um dort ihren Freund Giovanni zu heiraten. Marie bietet Marietta Geld, um ihren Platz an Bord des Schiffes übernehmen und so unentdeckt fliehen zu können. Marietta nimmt das Geld an, und Marie kann als Marietta einschiffen. Kurz danach wird bekannt gemacht, dass Marie als Flüchtling gilt. Es sind 550 Goldstücke für Informationen über ihren Aufenthaltsort ausgesetzt.

Auf dem Schiff findet sich Marie unter vielen Frauen wieder, die per königlichem Vertrag nach Louisiana geschickt wurden, um dort ledige Siedler zu heiraten. Sie erzählt Julie, einer der Frauen, dass sie das nicht machen werde. Bei einem Piratenüberfall gerät das Schiff außer Kontrolle und strandet an der Küste der Kolonie. Die Frauen können von Bord gehen, doch schon bald entbrennt ein heftiger Kampf zwischen den Piraten und eintreffenden Yankee-Soldaten. Die Piraten werden besiegt, der Kommandant der Soldaten, Richard Warrington, verliebt sich in Marie. Die Frauen werden nach New Orleans gebracht. Der Gouverneur und viele heiratswillige Siedler begrüßen sie freudig. Marie versucht durch eine Lüge der Heirat mit einem Siedler zu entgehen, sie lässt verlauten, sie sei eine unmoralische Frau. Dadurch muss sie nun in einer Marionetten-Show arbeiten. Warrington findet sie dort. Er erfährt von der flüchtigen Prinzessin und erkennt, dass Marie die Person ist. Er plant, sie zu verstecken.

Marie jedoch wird erkannt und inhaftiert. Julie besucht sie und bringt ihr die Neuigkeiten, dass Richard verbannt wurde. Außerdem sei ihr Onkel auf dem Weg, um sie zu Don Carlos zu bringen. Maries Onkel kommt an und rät ihr, sich mit Don Carlos zu versöhnen. Sie solle ihm sagen, dass ihre Flucht aus einer Laune heraus geschehen sei. Indessen sucht Julie Richard auf. Sie erklärt ihm, dass der Gouverneur ihn bestrafen werde, wenn Marie den Befehlen des Königs nicht Folge leiste.

Kurz vor ihrer Abreise besuchen Marie und ihr Onkel einen Abschiedsball, den der Gouverneur ausrichtet. Richard taucht dort unerwartet auf und bringt Marie dazu, mit ihm in die Wildnis zu flüchten, um dort ein ungestörtes neues Leben mit ihm zu beginnen.

Jeanette MacDonald war 1933 von Louis B. Mayer persönlich für MGM unter Vertrag genommen. Die Schauspielerin war seit 1929 bei Paramount Pictures zu einer beliebten Darstellerin leichter, mitunter frivoler Komödien geworden und hatte mehrfach unter der Regie von Ernst Lubitsch an der Seite von Maurice Chevalier gespielt. MGM förderte jedoch eher ihr Gesangstalent und so drehte MacDonald als ersten Film unter ihrem neuen Vertrag das Musical The Cat and the Fiddle.

MGM hatte seit Juli 1933 den Gedanken, MacDonald mit dem Bariton Nelson Eddy gemeinsam auf die Leinwand zu bringen. Als erstes Projekt eine musikalische Fassung von The Prisoner of Zenda angedacht und als sich die Pläne zerschlugen, die Operette I Married an Angel. Ende 1934 einigten sich die Beteiligten schließlich auf die Verfilmung der bekannten Operette Naughty Marietta von Victor Herbert, die seit ihrer Uraufführung 1910 zu einem Klassiker auf den amerikanischen Bühnen geworden war. Besonders die Lieder Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life und Italian Love Song wurden sehr populär.

Das Genre der Filmoperette war bereits zu Stummfilmzeiten populär und erlebe einen ersten Höhepunkt zu Beginn der Tonfilmära. Doch ein Überangebot an Singspielen führten zu einem raschen Erlahmen des Publikumsinteresses. Erst 1934 stellten sowohl Ernst Lubitsch mit seiner Verfilmung von Die lustige Witwe als auch One Night of Love mit Grace Moore wieder unter Beweis, dass die Zuschauer durchaus auch eher klassische Musik im Film akzeptierten.

Erste Pläne zur Verfilmung von Naughty Marietta mit Marion Davies in der Hauptrolle gab es bei MGM schon 1930, doch kam das Projekt nicht über einige Drehbuchentwürfe hinaus. Auch der zweite Anlauf verlief nicht ohne Probleme. Lous B. Mayer wollte zunächst den Sänger Allan Jones als Partner von MacDonald, der jedoch bereits an dem Come-Backfilm der Marx Brothers A Night at the Opera mitwirkte. Am Ende fiel die Wahl auf Nelson Eddy, der einige Monate zuvor in dem Joan Crawford-Film Dancing Lady sein Leinwanddebüt gegeben hatte. Der ursprünglich vorgesehene Regisseur Robert Z. Leonard gab unmittelbar nach Drehbeginn die Verantwortung ab und der Auftrag ging an W. S. Van Dyke. Das Drehbuch musste mehrfach umgeschrieben werden. Auch wurden etliche der ursprünglichen Lieder entweder komplett herausgenommen oder mit anderen Texten versehen. Beibehalten wurden jedoch die bekanntesten Lieder des Stücks, Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life, I’m Falling in Love with Someone, Italian Street Song sowie Tramp Tramp Tramp und Neath the Southern Moon

Mit Produktionskosten von 782.000 US-Dollar lag Tolle Marietta im oberen Bereich für einen MGM-Film, wenn auch die späteren Filme der beiden Stars teilweise über 2.000.000 US-Dollar kosten sollten. In den USA spielte der Film mit 1.058.000 US-Dollar einen guten, wenn auch keinen Spitzenwert ein. Mit sehr hohen Auslandseinnahmen von 999.000 US-Dollar und einem kumulierten Ergebnis von insgesamt 2.057.000 US-Dollar war Tolle Marietta mit einem Gewinn von 446.000 US-Dollar eine der erfolgreicheren Produktionen des Jahres für MGM. Der Film wurde ein großer finanzieller Erfolg, der aus Jeanette MacDonald und Nelson Eddy ein Leinwandpaar machte, die noch sieben weitere Filme gemeinsam drehen sollten.

Der Film bekam durchweg gute Kritiken. So bezeichnete ihn Ed Sullivan in der New York Daily News als „fantastisch. MacDonald-Eddy sind das Sensationspaar der Filmindustrie.“ Richard Watts jr. vom New York Herald-Tribune machte Nelson Eddys „brillanten Bariton“ für den Erfolg des Filmes verantwortlich. Laut Andre Sennwald von der New York Times schuf W. S. Van Dyke einen „fröhlich-romantischen und melodischen Film, der seine Komponisten begeistert“. Richard Watts jr. von der New York Herald-Tribune machte Nelson Eddys „brillanten Bariton“ für den Erfolg des Films verantwortlich.

Nur das Time Magazine konnte dem Film nichts abgewinnen. Der Film sei „lächerlicher Abfall, der für die Belange des romantischen Kinos gut passt“.

Oscarverleihung 1936

Weitere Auszeichnungen

The Land of Long Shadows | The Range Boss | Open Places | Men of the Desert | Gift o’ Gab | Sadie Goes to Heaven | The Lady of the Dugout | The Hawk’s Trail | Daredevil Jack | Double Adventure | The Avenging Arrow | White Eagle | The Milky Way | According to Hoyle | Forget Me Not | The Boss of Camp Four | The Little Girl Next Door | Destroying Angel | The Miracle Makers | Der kleine Steuermann | Loving Lies | The Battling Fool | The Beautiful Sinner | Winner Take All | Gold Heels | Barriers Burned Away | The Trail Rider | Hearts and Spurs | Ranger of the Big Pines | Timber Wolf | The Desert’s Price | The Gentle Cyclone | War Paint | Winners of the Wilderness | California | The Eyes of the Totem | The Heart of the Yukon | Foreign Devils | Spoilers of the West | Wyoming | Under the Black Eagle | Weiße Schatten | The Pagan | Trader Horn | Never the Twain Shall Meet | Guilty Hands | Das Mädel aus Havanna | Tarzan, der Affenmensch | Night Court | Penthouse | Der Boxer und die Lady | Eskimo | Manhattan Melodrama | Der dünne Mann | Hide-Out | Heirate nie beim ersten Mal | Tolle Marietta | Wo die Liebe hinfällt | Rose-Marie | San Francisco | Zwischen Haß und Liebe | The Devil Is a Sissy | Love on the Run | Dünner Mann, 2. Fall | Der Mann mit dem Kuckuck | They Gave Him a Gun | Hoheit tanzt inkognito | Marie-Antoinette | Sweethearts | Auf in den Kampf | Drunter und drüber | Andy Hardy Gets Spring Fever | Dünner Mann, 3. Fall | I Take This Woman | Liebling, du hast dich verändert | Bitter Sweet | Gefährliche Liebe | The Feminine Touch | Der Schatten des dünnen Mannes | Dr. Kildare’s Victory | I Married an Angel | Cairo | Journey for Margaret